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Modern slavery Statistics UK 2021

Modern slavery in the UK: March 2020 The hidden nature of modern slavery makes producing an accurate prevalence measure difficult. This article explores the issue and brings together data sources linked to modern slavery from a range of organisations 4 2020 y 0.1 Modern slavery is a complex, harmful, and largely hidden crime. Improving evidence about the scale and nature of modern slavery is a priority for the UK Government. 0.2 Over the last year, there has been significant progress made across the UK to tackle modern slavery and human trafficking during th In 2020, the NRM received 10,613 referrals of potential victims of modern slavery, which is very similar to the number received in 2019 (10,616). This is the first year that has seen NRM referrals..

Modern slavery in the UK - Office for National Statistic

Modern slavery in the UK: March 2020. The hidden nature of modern slavery makes producing an accurate prevalence measure difficult. This article explores the issue and brings together data sources linked to modern slavery from a range of organisations This report provides an overview of the nature and scale of contacts to the Modern Slavery and Exploitation Helpline for the six month period between 23 March 2020 and 23 September 2020. During this period, the UK experienced various stages of lockdown which undoubtedly created a unique environment that none of us has seen in our lifetimes The economic and social cost of modern slavery is believed to be between £3.3 billion and £4.3 billion - but this sum is based on up to 13,000 victims, meaning the true cost could be far greater

Statistics on forced labour, modern slavery and human trafficking Global estimates on forced labour Nearly 21 million people - three out of every 1,000 people worldwide - are victims of forced labour across the world, trapped in jobs which they were coerced or deceived into and which they cannot leave Thu 2 Apr 2020 06.54 EDT The number of potential modern slavery victims identified in the UK has risen by 52% in a year to a record high, official figures have revealed Here are some modern day slavery statistics that you probably didn't know about. There is an estimated 20 to 30 million slaves across the world today. It is hard to count the exact numbers of a hidden population. 90% of women and children who end up as Sex Slaves were victims of childhood sexual abuse before they were recruited

In quarter 2 2020, 2,207 potential victims of modern slavery were referred to the NRM; a 23% decrease from the preceding quarter, and 5% decrease from the same quarter in 2019. Of the 2,207.. Thu 30 Jan 2020 01.00 EST There has been a more than tenfold increase in the number of people identified as victims of modern slavery and human trafficking in London, and more than 30% of all cases.. Modern slavery in the UK can take many forms, including forced sexual exploitation, domestic slavery or forced labour on farms, in construction, shops, bars, nail bars, car washes or manufacturing. Forced labour is the most common form of slavery in the UK, fueled by a drive for cheap products and services, with little regard for the people.

Modern slavery in the UK - Office for National Statistics

Modern Slavery: National Referral Mechanism and - GOV

  1. Following years of steady increases in the number of potential victims of modern slavery being identified through the UK's National Referral Mechanism (NRM), 2020 has seen a slight drop in these numbers for the first time since the system was established in 2009. 10,613 potential victims of modern slavery were referred to the NRM, the UK's official system through which victims are identified and provided support, three fewer than in 2019
  2. Research projects explore impact of COVID-19 on modern slavery. 17 December 2020. The AHRC-supported Modern Slavery and Human Rights Policy and Evidence Centre (PEC) announces 11 new projects analysing the impact of COVID-19 on modern slavery. As part of its first research call, the projects mark a major milestone for the centre, which was.
  3. UK trafficking statistics. 10,613 potential victims of human trafficking were identified in 2020 — consistent with the number identified in 2019 (10,616).*. *This is likely due to the impact of the pandemic on victim identification. While the number of potential adult victims decreased in 2020, the number of potential child victims increased
  4. A lack of increase in the numbers of possible cases of modern slavery in the UK indicates that the pandemic has served to further conceal this abhorrent crime, says Hope for Justice. The latest annual Home Office figures show that in 2020 there were 10,613 potential cases of modern slavery. This is compared to 10,616 in 2019 and 6,982 in 2018
  5. Modern slavery is the severe exploitation of other people for personal or commercial gain. Modern slavery is all around us, but often just out of sight. People can become entrapped making our clothes, serving our food, picking our crops, working in factories, or working in houses as cooks, cleaners or nannies

Modern slavery in the UK: March 2020 - Office for National

Dataset Modern slavery in the UK - Appendix tables. Modern slavery in the UK - Appendix tables. Contact: Nicholas Stripe. Release date: 26 March 2020. Next release: To be announced The statistics published on Thursday revealed that there were 10,613 potential cases of modern slavery detected in 2020, only slightly lower than in 2019, when 10,616 cases were identified.. Home Official officials suspect that the plateau in figures may have been due to fewer opportunities for slavery victims to interact with emergency services or travel due to a year of coronavirus restrictions

Changing the conversation about modern slavery

Helpline Statistics - Modern Slavery Helplin

Modern slavery: At least 100,000 victims in UK include

  1. Modern Slavery There are an estimated 40 million people trapped in Modern Slavery. Women and girls are disproportionately affected by modern slavery, accounting for almost 29 million, or 71 per cent of the overall total. One in four victims of modern slavery are children, or about 10 million children
  2. ECPAT UK's new snapshot report provides an overview of the state of modern slavery affecting children in the UK, drawing on our experience of working with young people who have been exploited, and compiling the latest statistics and recent policy developments on this important issue
  3. Registered company number 06754171 Phone the Police 24/7, 999 for emergencies, 101 for non-emergencies, or the Modern Slavery Helpline 08000 121 700 Contact Us Twitter Facebook Instagram linkedin Youtub
  4. This statement, pursuant to s54(1) of the Modern Slavery Act 2015 (UK) and the Australian Modern Slavery Act 2018 (Cth), sets out the actions taken by the Qantas Group to address modern slavery and human trafficking risks in our business and supply chain over the financial year ending 30 June 2020
  5. Modern slavery, however, still exists around the world and continues to be a severe problem, mainly because modern slavery is not easy to recognize. According to the U.S. Department of State , modern slavery is used as an umbrella term for the act of recruiting, harboring, transporting, providing, or obtaining a person for compelled labor or.
  6. There were 5.4 victims of modern slavery for every thousand people in the world in 2016. There were 5.9 adult victims of modern slavery for every 1,000 adults in the world and 4.4 child victims for every 1,000 children in the world. GENDER Women and girls accounted for 71 per cent of modern slavery victims. CHILDRE
  7. Forced Labour and Forced Marriage. The 2017 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery focus on two main issues: forced labour and forced marriage. The estimate of forced labour comprises forced labour in the private economy, forced sexual exploitation of adults and commercial sexual exploitation of children, and state-imposed forced labour

The Modern Slavery Act 2015 came into force on 31st July 2015. The offences to be flagged after this date are: Modern Slavery Act 2015 (Section 1(a)) Modern Slavery Act 2015 (Section 1(b)) Modern Slavery Act 2015 (Section 2) Modern Slavery Act 2015 (Section 4(2)) Modern Slavery Act 2015 (Section 4(3)) Racist Crime Last modified on Thu 15 Oct 2020 09.21 EDT. are living in some form of modern slavery, In the UK, you can contact the Modern Slavery Helpline on 08000 121 700,. At any given time in 2016, an estimated 40.3 million people are in modern slavery, including 24.9 million in forced labour and 15.4 million in forced marriage.; It means there are 5.4 victims of modern slavery for every 1,000 people in the world.; 1 in 4 victims of modern slavery are children. Out of the 24.9 million people trapped in forced labour, 16 million people are exploited in the. We need to talk about County Lines child exploitation. GET YOUR FREE GUIDE 2 UK Home Office, Modern Slavery: National Referral Mechanism and Duty to Notify Statistics UK, Quarter 2 2020 - April to June, 2020, Notwithstanding recognition from practitioners that COVID-19 had significantly inhibited detection and safeguarding, the number of child referrals to the National Referral Mechanis

New tough measures to tackle modern slavery in supply

Statistics on forced labour, modern slavery and human

The National Crime Agency has published the National Strategic Assessment of Serious and Organised Crime 2020. It provides a single authoritative picture of the threat to the UK from serious and organised crime. It shows that we are confronted with a rapidly evolving threat that is becoming increasingly complex as criminals exploit the fast. Given the hidden nature of human trafficking, it is almost impossible to understand the full scope and scale of the issue. Amongst the most trusted sources for understanding the global situation is the research by the International Labour Organization (ILO).. According to the latest report on forced labour by the ILO:. An estimated 40.3 million victims are trapped in modern-day slavery The Modern Slavery and Exploitation Helpline: 08000 121700. We have a commitment to enable all people to flourish not merely to exist, to consider what serving better the needs of others will look like in our respective communities and to live out being a witness as the Body of Christ in the world today. The UK Government will launch its own central registry of modern slavery statements in 2021. For over four years Business & Human Rights Resource Centre has played a central role in monitoring compliance with the UK Modern Slavery Act. We are proud to have helped to promote transparency and increase accountability with the Modern Slavery. July 14 @ 4:00 pm - 5:00 pm BST. The Independent Anti-Slavery Commissioner, Dame Sara Thornton, has a UK-wide remit to encourage good practice in the prevention, detection, investigation and prosecution of slavery and human trafficking offences and the [] Learn more. 1 event, 15

UK government modern slavery statement - GOV

The UK retained its position as the ninth leading manufacturer and tenth in terms of global exports with output totalling £191bn in 2019 - a growth of 7% over the last five years. The data also reveals that among the 2.7 million people employed by UK manufacturers, the average salary stands at £34,538 - 13% higher than the average UK salary ECPAT UK's new snapshot report provides an overview of the state of modern slavery affecting children in the UK, drawing on our experience of working with young people who have been exploited, and compiling the latest statistics and recent policy developments on this important issue. Read mor UK Statistics is published and updated every month; this is a compilation of 46 economic indicators and other useful statistics, with tables of data, including Retail Prices Indices (RPI), Consumer Prices Index (CPI), Average Earnings Index (AEI), Average Weekly Earnings (AWE), National Insurance (NI), Section 148, Bank Base Rates and Pension Scheme Earnings Cap The statistics reveal there are still a small number of people waiting for a CG decision who were referred to the NRM before the Modern Slavery Act was passed in 2015 Can Words Speak Louder Than Actions? A Text Analysis Based Evaluation of the UK Modern Slavery Act: Authors: Chaturvedi, Kavya: Advisors: Wasow, Omar: Department: Princeton School of Public and International Affairs: Certificate Program: Center for Statistics and Machine Learning: Class Year: 2021: Abstract

ACRATH: Forced Marriage in South Australia | ACRATH

Children are among the most vulnerable to slavery. There are 8.4 million children currently suffering exploitation all over the world. 1 in 4 modern slavery victims are children. There are 4.4 child victims for every 1000 children in the world. 37% of those forced to marry are children. Children account for 18% of persons in private forced labour Modern slavery and forced labour are often linked to systemic issues. Businesses have a responsbility to prevent these issues from occurring in their operations and supply chains, as set out in existing and evolving regulations. This statement is made on behalf of H & M Hennes & Mauritz AB and all companies in the H&M Group, pursuant to the UK. An estimated 40.3 million men, women, and children were victims of modern slavery on any given day in 2016. 1 Of these, 24.9 million people were in forced labour and 15.4 million people were living in a forced marriage. Women and girls are vastly over-represented, making up 71 percent of victims. Modern slavery is most prevalent in Africa. Modern slavery is a term that includes any form of human trafficking, slavery, servitude or forced labour, as set out in the Modern Slavery Act 2015.. Human trafficking is defined as a process that is a combination of three basic components:. Movement (including within the UK); Control, through harm/threat of harm or fraud; For the purpose of exploitatio Modern Slavery Act statement September 2020. We recognise the impact that modern slavery can have on people's lives. In 2016, the International Labour Organisation stated an estimated 40 million people were trapped in modern slavery. We are committed to identifying and eliminating any modern slavery in our own supply chain and in.

Number of potential modern slavery victims in UK rises by

  1. The number of British people identified as modern slavery victims has surged by 72 per cent in a year, according to figures, fuelling concerns about county lines drugs gangs and other forms.
  2. Until now. Home Office statistics published last week show the first annual decrease in referrals of modern slavery victims in eight years. The last quarter of 2019 saw the highest numbers of individuals to ever be identified in the UK, reaching 3,350 nationally and 1,045 in London alone
  3. Maps | Global Slavery Index. Low High. Prevalence. Population. GDP (PPP) Prevalence Index Rank. Government Response Rating. AAA AA A BBB BB B CCC CC C D. This country could not score above a BBB as it received a negative rating for policies that hinder their response to modern slavery

Modern Day Slavery Statistics - TheWorldCount

Payment statistics overview. Pay.UK publishes a range of statistics including monthly, quarterly, annual and historical processing statistics for Bacs, CHAPS, Image Clearing System and Faster Payments. Pay.UK - Monthly payment statistics June 2021. Pay.UK - Quarterly payment statistics Q1 2021. Pay.UK - Annual summary of payment statistics 2020 The United Kingdom is one of the regular offenders of exploiting seasonal farm workers. From 2016 to 2017 the number of modern slavery cases rose by 35%. The farming industry is estimated to be responsible for 10,000 to 13,000 people living in slavery arrangements International statistics (As at 1 January 2020) Number of corps, outposts, societies, new plants and recovery churches: 14,588 Number of officers: 27,17 There are no statistics that can accurately show the scale of the problem of modern slavery in the UK due to the hidden nature and underreporting of the crime. However, the most up to date Home Office NRM statistics are as follows: In quarter 3 2020, 2,506 potential victims of modern slavery were referred to the NRM; a 14% increase from the. Justice and Care said political leadership to tackle modern slavery had waned in recent years, and that a landmark 2015 anti-slavery law may have created a false sense of security

Number of slavery victims in London up tenfold in five

3 Referrals to Police on modern slavery cases In quarter 4 2019, the 2 cases of modern slavery reported in Northern Ireland reported 1 case of labour exploitation and 1 case of criminal exploitation. Quarter 1 2020 has seen a broader mix of modern slavery cases, including cases of sexual exploitation which make up 40% of the cases. Labour, 1, 20 The Modern Slavery Act 2015 gives law enforcement agencies the tools to tackle modern slavery, including maximum life sentences for perpetrators and enhanced protection for victims. In 2020/21, the Home Office has allocated over £2million to fund the police under the new Modern Slavery and Organised Immigration Crime Programme Modern slavery in the UK: March 2020 Article | Released on 26 March 2020 The hidden nature of modern slavery makes producing an accurate prevalence measure difficult. This article explores the issue and brings together data sources linked to modern slavery from a range of organisations More than 10,000 suspected modern slavery victims were identified in the UK last year, figures show, marking a plateau largely caused by the coronavirus pandemic. There were 10,613 potential victims of trafficking, slavery and forced labour referred to the National Referral Mechanism (NRM) in 2020, according to Home Office statistics Below you will find a fact sheet that gives an overview of the current facts and figures for slavery and trafficking globally and in the UK: 1. In 2016, at any given time, an estimated 40.3 million people worldwide were in modern slavery, including 24.9 million in forced labour and 15.4 million people in forced marriage. 2

Impact of the UK Modern Slavery Act in the UK. In 2016, Walk Free and WikiRate 91 partnered to develop a UK Modern Slavery Act Research project that would contribute to transparency on corporate action on modern slavery by enabling members of the public to view and rate modern slavery statements produced under Section 54 of the UK Modern Slavery Act. 92 Section 54 requires businesses either. The result of research carried out by Anti-Slavery International between 2005 and 2006 with the aim of finding out more about trafficking for forced labour in the United Kingdom. This was a qualitative rather than quantative project, which aimed to provide information about how migrants become trafficked and which industries in the UK are affected year ending 1 April 2020 to prevent modern slavery and human trafficking in its business and supply chains. MODERN SLAVERY STATEMENT 2019/20 REPRODUCE IN 100% BLACK PLEASE REFER TO OUR M&S BRAND MARK GUIDE FOR ADDITIONAL GUIDANCE INTRODUCTION This is M&S's fifth Modern Slavery statement issued under the Modern Slavery Act. It outlines the step United Kingdom United Kingdom Modern Slavery Act Statement. Read State Street's Modern Slavery Act Statement for 2020. Previous years: 2019. 2018. 2017. 2016. How we use cookies. We routinely use some cookies that are strictly necessary to provide the services or information you request or enable communications..

Video: Modern slavery in the UK - Anti-Slavery Internationa

Global Slavery Index - Modern slavery

Over 40 million people caught in modern slavery, 152 million in child labour - UN 19 September 2017 More than 40 million people around the world were victims of modern slavery - forced labour and forced marriage - in 2016, a United Nations study has found, revealing the true scale of such practices that disproportionately affect women and. 14 April 2020 Briefing: National Referral Mechanism Statistics 2019 1 Analysis: Trafficking decisions on non-EU nationals 'nearly five times more likely' to be rejected than British claims The UK's modern slavery framework rejects nearly five times more trafficking claims from non-European Union nationals than it does Brits, figures show These crimes that can be committed against men and women, adults and children, UK citizens and non-UK citizens. Travel from one place to another is not a required action for there to be an offence of human trafficking in Scotland and it does not matter if the victim 'consented' Standards to ensure adult survivors of trafficking consistently receive high quality care wherever they are in the UK. Modern Slavery - Duty to Notify - Factsheet (pdf) Guidance for specified public authorities - A factsheet explaining the duty to notify the Home Office about potential vistims of modern slavery Myth: Most victims of trafficking are smuggled into the UK. Not true. For a start many are British. But even among those that did travel to the UK, more than half of those reported to the Modern Slavery Helpline in 2018 arrived by plane (where means of transport was known)

Since the passage of the Modern Slavery Act 2015, the UK Government has announced various funding streams in recognition of the role that research can play in the fight against slavery. A proportion of the £6 million Modern Slavery Innovation Fund, announced a year after the Act came into force, was apportioned to ^crucial research int Modern Slavery in Supply Chains Modern slavery in supply chains has been highlighted in recent years through introduction of the Modern Slavery Act 2015. Section 54 of the act calls for transparency in companies' supply chains and demands that organisations that produce goods/services and have an annual turnover of £36 million, or more. A human trafficking ring which made £2m by exploiting hundreds of vulnerable victims has been dismantled following the UK's largest modern slavery investigation.. More than 400 people - many.

World Day against Trafficking in Persons - Campaign Images

Understanding the nature of modern slavery in the UK

18 March 2021. M. ore than 10,000 suspected modern slavery victims were identified in the UK last year, figures show, marking a plateau largely caused by the coronavirus pandemic. There were. Over the past quarter and owing to the impact of COVID-19 on the CJS, there was a significant decrease in volume of completed prosecutions, from 14,227 in Q4 2019/20, to 8,744 in Q1 2020/21. This is a 38.5% decrease, in comparison with a 61.4% decrease in all completed prosecutions over the same period

In Greater Manchester, we can reveal there were 254 crimes in 2018/19 which rose to 390 in 2019/20 - an increase of 53.54 per cent. The force with the most modern slavery crimes recorded by police. Impact of the UK Modern Slavery Act in China. In 2016, Walk Free and WikiRate 145 partnered to develop a UK Modern Slavery Act Research project that would contribute to transparency on corporate action on modern slavery by enabling members of the public to view and assess modern slavery statements produced under Section 54 of the UK Modern Slavery Act. 146 Section 54 requires businesses either. Modern slavery is an umbrella term for all forms of slavery, human trafficking and exploitation, says the Office for National Statistics (ONS). Men, women and children of any age can be affected and, while some may be trafficked from other countries, UK residents, some of the most vulnerable people in society, are also among the victims Modern slavery statement. Scroll. This statement sets out Pilgrim's UK actions to understand all potential modern slavery risks related to its business and to put in place steps that are aimed at ensuring that there is no slavery or human trafficking in its own business and its supply chain. Modern Slavery Statement 2020 According to the Home Office, between October and December 2020, 3,042 potential victims of modern slavery were referred to the UK National Referral Mechanism (NRM), the government framework for identifying potential victims of modern slavery and ensuring they receive appropriate support

Slavery in the 21st century - Wikipedi

In fact, if anything, it just means that slavery is harder to track and occurs far from the eye of local authorities. Below is an overview of countries by the largest populations of people said to be in a situation of slavery. 10. Iran - 16.2 per 1,000 . Modern slavery occurs in Iran, where around every 16.2 people for every 1,000 are affected. The Commissioner works directly with statutory agencies, who have a duty to co-operate with the Commissioner as set out in the Modern Slavery Act. 4. Home Office statistics for NRM referrals 1 April 2020 - 30 June 2020 were released on 17 September and can be found at the following website

Human trafficking: Why the UK has seen a rise in sexual

It is a form of modern slavery. Human trafficking is a crime. It does not always involve international transportation. Trafficking in the UK includes commercial, sexual and bonded labour. Trafficked people have little choice in what happens to them and often suffer abuse due to violence and threats made against them or their families Modern slavery is a term that includes any form of human trafficking, slavery, servitude or forced labour, as set out in the Modern Slavery Act 2015. Potential victims in the UK that come to the. The Commonwealth Modern Slavery Act 2018 (the Act) entered into force on 1 January 2019. The Act established a national Modern Slavery Reporting Requirement (Reporting Requirement). This Reporting Requirement applies to large businesses and other entities in the Australian market with annual consolidated revenue of at least AUD$100 million Changes. Modern slavery differs from historical slavery in several ways: There are more slaves than ever before, but they are a smaller proportion of the human race. No-one seriously defends. The Impact of COVID-19 on Modern Slavery. There are 40.3 million people estimated to be in modern slavery. How will COVID-19 impact efforts to end modern slavery, forced labour, human trafficking, and child labour, as countries committed to in SDG Target 8.7? In at least three ways: 1) heightening risks for those already exploited; 2.

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4 Staples UK Ltd - Modern Slavery Statement Issued: April 2020 Human Resources Policies An update on all areas of this statement will be provided in the next financial year, 2021 T he received wisdom about slavery is that it is a thing of the past; a crime against human rights but a relic from an imperialist colonial era. But slavery still exists in many forms today and still affects millions of victims. Fast fashion giant Boohoo is facing an investigation into accusations of modern slavery after it emerged clothing workers at factories in Leicester, UK, were being. Modern slavery (in the UK this term encompasses both slavery and human trafficking) presents a significant public health concern and disproportionately affects vulnerable individuals, such as young people, migrants and those living in poverty.9 10 Survivors have often experienced extreme violence and psychological abuse.11 Addressing the mental.

In the UK for example, on April 22, 2020, with a minority from Romania and the UK. Six people were arrested, including four on suspicion of modern day slavery and proceeds of crime offenses. The quotas for EU-26/EFTA citizens also remain at 500 B and 3,000 L permits for 2021. Those for Croatian nationals stood at 133 B permits and 1,158 L permits in 2020 and will be 250 B permits and 2,000 L permits in 2021. Since 1 January 2021, there are also separate quotas for nationals of the United Kingdom What are Some Examples of Modern Day Slavery? Examples of modern slavery are wide-ranging. 'Slavery' is an umbrella term for when one individual has ownership over another. Modern-day slavery is more subtle. In modern slavery terms, someone may be a slave if they are: forced to work through mental or physical threat Geneva - 1 December 2017 - With over 40 million men, women and children in modern slavery according to the most recent ILO estimates, slavery is not a thing of the past. There are slaves working on every continent, in every country, in all types of industries and even in people's homes. Modern slavery affects children and rural communities around the world, with 11% of victims working in.

New figures show the UK government is failing modern

Call the Modern Day Slavery Helpline 0800 0121 700. Salvation Army 0300 3038 151. Helping under 18s. For advice for under 18s, call the NSPCC Child Trafficking Advice Centre 080 880 050 00 or Barnardo's National Counter-Trafficking Service 0800 043 4303 for hands-on support Tackling Modern Slavery in UK Businesses Toolkit S2G US: RRT Online Tool for US Fresh Produce Brochure, Oct 2020. Read more Download. Tackling Forced Labor in U.S. Produce Businesses Toolkit. Read more Download. Tackling Forced Labour in Agri-Businesses Toolkit - Spain (English

Bacs Payment System statistics. The Bacs annual processing statistics 2020 show use of Direct Debit and Bacs Direct Credit. The statistics show volume by industry sector and sub-sector. It provides specific data for each sub sector giving an overview of the behaviour of the UK population when it comes to the day-to-day financial habits The comprehensive resource for statistics, tables, charts and commentary on the UK screen industries. The Statistical Yearbook is published by the BFI Research and Statistics Unit. It is published throughout the second half of each year, concluding with the full yearbook and the accompanying dataset and tables An estimated 40.3 million people are in modern slavery, including 24.9 in forced labour and 15.4 million in forced marriage. There are 5.4 victims of modern slavery for every 1,000 people in the.

Modern slavery and human trafficking - National Crime Agenc

Home Office (2020b) 2020 UK annual report on modern slavery. [Accessed 16/03/2021]. Home Office (2018) County lines: criminal exploitation of children and vulnerable adults. [Accessed 16/03/2021]. Ministry of Justice (2019) County lines exploitation: practice guidance for youth offending teams and frontline practitioners. [Accessed 16/03/2021]